In this series, we’ll examine the first 90 days from a variety of perspectives and provide lots of links to different resources for more in-depth looks at individual topics.
Now that we understand the fundamental metrics of our marketing business – CAC and CLV – our next step is to construct an understanding of what feeds into those metrics. We need to assemble the chain of events which leads to an acquisition of a customer, and measure each event.
Before we begin to make changes to any marketing program, we need an understanding of what the program is doing. What are the critical points of failure? What needs to be fixed?
Mapping the Customer Journey
Start with an empty wall and a pile of sticky notes. From the end of the customer acquisition process, create a sticky note for each stage prior. Before someone becomes a customer, what must they do immediately prior, such as sign a contract?
Before someone signs a contract, what must they do? Send a verbal or written agreement to purchase?
Before someone agrees to purchase, what must they do?
Continue through the sequence of events to identify every possible touchpoint and interaction with the customer from beginning to end. It’s perfectly fine – expected, even – that the further towards the beginning of the process, the less orderly and logical things will be. People change their minds all the time. People receive information from many different sources.
This is a view of the customer journey from inside, from your view as CMO.
Next, interview 5-10 customers – ideally recent ones with the process fresh in their minds – and repeat the same exercise, individually, for each.
Compare and contrast. What’s different about their processes and paths versus what you see internally? Are events in a different sequence than you imagined? Do the majority of customers you interviewed not even participate in certain stages of your marketing?
Once you’ve developed a strong understanding of the customer journey to purchase, attempt to quantify as much of it as possible. How many customers interact with your email marketing? How many customers fail to sign a contract? Over each sticky note, write down the number of customers who participate in that touchpoint.
If the information for a particular touchpoint isn’t available in your marketing analytics (or isn’t reliable), you’ll need to run a survey with your customers to quantify that touchpoint.
After quantifying as many of your touchpoints as possible, categorize your touchpoints based on the kind of interaction customers have with you. The general stages a customer goes through include, but are not limited to:
- Active Evaluation
- Point of Purchase
- Post-Purchase Ownership
For each of the stages, classify your touchpoints; some touchpoints will occur in more than one. For some businesses, not every stage appears or is discrete. For example, awareness and interest are almost immediate in a retail point of sale environment.
Quantify each stage based on the taxonomy you choose.
Find the Most Broken Steps
The final step in the process of benchmarking is to map the transitions between stages, then identify which is the most broken stage. As a simple example, suppose our journey looks like this:
- Awareness: 10000 people
- Awareness to interest transition rate: 10%
- Interest (lead generated): 1000 people
- Interest to opportunity transition rate: 5%
- Opportunity: 50 people
- Opportunity to sale transition rate: 50%
- Sale: 25 people
Once we have our benchmarks and transitions mapped, we see that the interest to opportunity transition rate is the most broken, the most in need of repair. If we can double that rate, we can effectively double our revenue without substantially changing other parts of our journey.
More than Metrics
Understanding where we stand in measurement is vital, but not the only part of benchmarking we need to conduct. In the next post in this series, we’ll investigate benchmarking of our brand.
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